- 1 Lung Cancer: Signs and Symptoms
Lung Cancer: Signs and Symptoms
The unrestrained growth of cancerous tumours in the lungs is known as lung cancer. Carcinogens, particles present in tobacco smoke, very quickly causes small changes to the lining in the tissue known as bronchi of the lungs or the bronchial mucous membrane. The effect is progressive, and with the time and continued exposure, the number of tissues getting damaged will increase to the point when the tumour develops. Inward growth of tumour leads to obstruction in the air passageway that causes breathing difficulties. Lungs have a high possibility to get collapsed and development of infection that may lead to lung abscess.
Lung cancer tends to spread to the
- Lymph nodes
- Adrenal Glands
Patient may develop headaches and other neurological symptoms if the cancer spreads to the brain. A brain tumor can cause-
- Memory problems
- Visual Changes
- Numbness of the limbs
- An unsteady gait
- Balance problems
Symptoms of lung cancer
- Coughing up Blood
- Chronic Cough
- Chest Pain
- Weight loss
- Loss of appetite
- Shortness of breath
- Raspy or Hoarse voice
- Drop in weight
- Bone Pain
Types of Lung Cancer
The types of lung cancer are categorised on the basis of the size of the cancerous cells. The size can be small and non-small.
Small cell types
Cell carcinoma is the less common form of lung cancer which makes up to approximately 20% of the cases. It generally starts to develop in the larger breathing tubes and regrow rapidly becoming quite large in size.
Non-small cell types
Squamous cell carcinoma that starts in the larger breathing tubes and grows slowly that implies that the size of the tumour may vary on diagnosis. The cancer that starts near the surface of the lung also known as adenocarcinoma. The mentioned types may add up to 90 per cent of all cases of lung cancer. Carcinoid, mucoepidermoid, and malignant mesothelioma are the other forms of lung cancer.
Causes of lung cancer
The four major reasons of lung cancer includes-
- Genetic Susceptibility
Carcinogens – They are the chemical substances that lead to the modification of the genome of the cells that promote cancer transformation. Benzene, Kenone, Asbestos, DDT etc., they all have been arranged as a rich source of numerous carcinogens for example 3 to 4 benzpiren. Some traditional food items like Bracken, Acrylamide, are many a times found to be carcinogenic. Mostly, but not necessarily carcinogens are known as teratogens or mutagens.
Radiation – The emission of energy via waves or particles also known as electromagnetic radiation is known as Radiation. There are various sources from which radiation can be produced like radioactive decay, nuclear fusion, chemical reactions, gases, hot objects, nuclear fission, and gases produced by electric currents. There are two types of radiation- ionizing and non-ionizing.
Genetic Vulnerability – For the people who have family history of cancer are more vulnerable to catch lung cancer. It is not mandatory that it can occur, but there are good chances that the disease might grow so prevention is always better than cure.
Virus– It is a small particle that has high possibility to spread infection in other biological organisms. The particles that infect eukaryotes, multi-celled organisms and many single-celled organisms, whereas bacteriophage is used to describe the infecting prokaryotes. Generally these particles carry small amount of nucleic acid like DNA OR RNA.
Treatment of lung cancer varies depending upon the type of cancer, how far that has developed and some other details of the patient for example age. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are common treatment of lung cancer.
Hospitals and Surgeons in India for Lung Cancer Treatment
India is well known for the best healthcare professionals and cost-effectiveness in the medical journey of the patient. Some notable hospitals are Medanta, MAX, Fortis, Rockland, Artemis, and BLK. All mentioned hospitals consist of world renowned healthcare professionals and are delivering healthcare services at a very high success rate. Dr. Sabyasachi Pal and Dr Vinod Raina from Fortis, Dr Kapil Agarwal from BLK are the leading surgeons/oncologists that have been treating patients for a very long time now.
It is very important to choose the most suitable healthcare providers and surgeons to make the medical journey a success.
The segment which is most likely to develop lung cancer are of the group over-fifties who have a history of smoking. It is the most leading cause of death for men and women. It is observed that the rate of men dying from lung cancer is falling in the west, whereas the rate of women dying because of lung cancer is increasing due to the increase in rate of women taking up smoking as a habit.
People who are at high risk
- People in the age group of 55 to 80
- One who has smoked for past 15 years
- One with smoking history or one who currently smokes
Prevention is better than Cure
Nothing is important to you than your own life. Smoking as a practice only adds to harm to your body and slowly deteriorate the lungs. It is almost impossible to completely halt smoking, but one can slowly quit smoking by firstly decreasing it to a level or limiting it to only a few occasions. You all spread happiness and magic in someone’s life, do not become burden on yourself or anyone by catching a disease because of your own deeds. Quit smoking for your own benefit. Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, so be wise for your body and throw away your packet of cigarettes and buy some healthy eatable instead. Quitting smoking is a process, not an event. But, start from the very moment you read this and one day you will completely stop smoking and thereby increase your chances of not getting lung cancer.