This medical guide is dedicated to heart diseases that talks about the causes, symptoms and the treatment options that can be used for preventing heart attacks. This guide aims to spread awareness regarding Myocardial Infraction.

Heart attacks are one of the most common causes of death around the world. It can be defined as a condition in which a segment of heart shuts down because of the loss of blood supply in that muscle. The reason for this loss of supply can be caused due to the presence of a disease or blood clot in the heart muscle.

Interestingly, heart attacks are more common in men than women. Recently, a study revealed that women are able to recover faster will heart attacks because of their emotional stability.

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Heart Attack

Medical Terminology – Myocardial Infraction (MI)

Myocardial Infraction occurs due to the blockage or loss of the blood flow in the heart muscle. This condition can cause immediate death if the arteries that supply the blood to the heart are not reopened quickly.

Usually, mostly MI is caused because of some cardiac disease or other condition, but obese people with an unhealthy lifestyle are more prone to getting an MI than healthy people. 

Other Names of Myocardial Infraction

  • Coronary Occlusion
  • Coronary Thrombosis
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • Acute Myocardial Infraction (AMI)

Dangerous Fast about Heart Attack

  • It is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.
  • Most Myocardial infractions are caused because of coronary heart diseases.
  • In every 20 seconds, a patient experiences a heart attack, and in every minute a myocardial infraction fatality takes place.
  • Approximately 14 million Americans have reported angina or recurring Myocardial Infractions, in their family history.
  • Some patients might not experience any recognizable symptoms while having an attack.
  • The symptoms of heart attack can vary in men and women.
  • Contrary to old believes, Women who are under the age of 50 have a greater risk of dying from a heart attack compared to men who are of the same age.
  • On an average over one million people in the USA experience a myocardial infraction every year.
  • The treatment cost incurred by people suffering from heart attacks across globe exceeds by 60 billion dollars every year that includes everything from the fees of doctors, hospitalization, and the prescription drugs.
  • It was discovered that chewing an aspirin on the first symptom of chest discomfort, can help in reducing the amount of damage that is caused on the heart muscles because of a heart attack.
  • Half of the deaths caused due to heart attack occur within an hour when the myocardial infraction is experienced – outside the hospital.
  • The heart attacks has started affecting the younger population. The condition is rapidly acquainted with the millennials causing warning signs of heart diseases in them. 

What causes Heart Attack?

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

An MI occurs when the flow of blood is blocked or reduced to segments of heart, which cause that portion to shut down. CHD is a significant cause of MI.

Coronary Artery Spasm

Patient rarely suffers from a myocardial infraction because of tightening (severe spasm) of the coronary artery. The spasm (contraction) reduces the blood flow in the artery. This shrinkage can occur in arteries which are not affected by atherosclerosis, as well.

The causes that might lead the arteries to spasm are still unclear, but the possible reasons causing it can be as follow:

    • Cigarette Smoking
    • Exposure to Extreme Cold
    • Emotional Pain or Stress
    • Drug Overuse like Cocaine or Meth


One might assume that heart attack symptoms in women and men will be common, as heart functions similarly in both. Men and women, don’t necessarily experience the same symptoms while having an attack. Although some of these symptoms remain common, few signs are only experienced by one of both genders. This makes it essential that these symptoms are studies individually for each gender.

Symptoms in Men

  • Sudden severe pain in the chest
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Radiating pain in the chest and the left arm
  • Cold Sweat
  • Lightheadedness

Symptoms in Women

  • Some women don’t experience any chest pain during a attack; rather they feel acute pain around their throat, neck, back and shoulders.
  • Vomiting feeling

All the other symptoms like dizziness, shortness of breath, cold sweat, and fatigue remain common in women like men.

Different patients can experience difference symptoms during a Myocardial Infraction

Not all people will suffer the same symptoms with similar severity during a myocardial infraction. Some people might feel mild pain, while some can feel more intense pain, while some people might not have any of these recognizable symptoms.

For other, the first symptom can be a direct cardiac arrest. However, the more signs an individual has, the higher the risk he/she has of having the attack.  

Difference Between Angina & Heart Attack (HA)

Angina is a health condition in which the patient experience radiating pain in their chest caused due to reduced flow of blood to the heart. The pain felt in angina is similar to the attack experienced in the heart, as these conditions occur due to similar circumstances, in which the flow of blood is reduced due to narrowed arteries or blockage.

It is essential to differentiate between the two as in some cases the patient might mistake one for another.

•    Pain associated with HA is usually experienced more adversely by patients than in angina.

•    The pain induced because of angina typically fades after 10 minutes.

•    The pain associated with angina occurs during exercise and goes away when the affected individual is resting.

•    Angina can be cured using medicines like nitroglycerin that instantly help in relieving the pain, while HA requires treatment for reopening the closed arteries.

The patient should consult a doctor if they feel any of the symptoms mentioned above. Assuming that the pain is induced because of angina, and delaying in calling the ambulance when the patient has a heart attack can cause death. 


Early treatment of MI can help in limiting the damage that is caused on the heart muscles. Acting immediately, and calling the ambulance at the right time can help in saving life. Medical personnel can start the patient’s treatment in the ambulance, offering the proper care.

Immediate Treatment

Specific treatments can be started immediately, if someone suspects to be affected by a myocardial infraction, even before it is confirmed in the diagnosis, he/she can do use the following:

•    Aspirin is a blood thinner that will prevent the blood from clotting any further.

•    The patient can take Nitroglycerin for reducing heart’s workload, by improving the blood flow in the coronary arteries.

•    Oxygen Therapy – to allow the patient to breathe properly

•    Chest Pain Treatment

Once the diagnosis of Myocardial infraction is confirmed, the doctor starts the treatment for restoring the blood flow by quickly reopening the veins. There are two procedures used for opening blocked arteries which include:

Clot-Busting Medicines

The patient is given thrombolytic medicines (clot busters) that dissolve the blood clots which are blocking veins or the coronary arteries. For best results, this medicine needs to be given to the patient as soon as he/she starts to experience any symptoms.

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (Coronary Angioplasty)

Percutaneous coronary intervention is performed using a catheter (a flexible, thin tube) with a balloon which is inserted into the blood vessel, through patient’s upper thigh (groin) towards the narrowed coronary artery. Once it has reached the narrowed area, the catheter is inflated for compressing the clot or the plaque against the artery walls, opening the veins, and restoring the normal flow of blood. In some cases a stent, a small tube is placed in the artery to prevent blockages after the procedure.

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

In coronary artery bypass grafting, the blocked artery in the heart is readjusted with a healthy vein or artery, which is placed around the blocked view, allowing the smooth flow of blood in the heart. This procedure is used for reconstructing a new route for the blood to flow into the heart muscles. 

Cardiac Rehabilitation

Cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for patients who have experienced severe attacks or to prevent the patient from undergoing another myocardial infraction. Cardiac Rehabilitation is a medical program, supervised for improving the well-being and health of patients who suffer from heart diseases.

Cardiac rehab team includes nurses, exercise specialists, doctors, and occupational therapist, nutritionists and psychologists.    

Reasons for Increase in the number of female heart patients in the last decade

Narrowed or contracted veins are a major cause of heart blockage, which is caused due to obesity or excess fat in the body. With eating disorders, like Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge-eating getting more common, millennials are getting more prone to eating high-cholesterol food items that can lead to obesity, which welcomes heart diseases and conditions, like blood pressure, diabetes, coronary heart diseases etc. With media standardizes and portraying women in a certain way, females are affected more by these disorders.

The extra fat presses against the veins, narrowing them, reducing the flow of blood in the body, which over time leads to clot formation and blockage in the heart. 

Today, myocardial infractions are getting common amongst youngsters. Kids are also getting affected by this disease. Now with social media, millennials have the extra stress of building a social persona that also prods depression in them, causing unnecessary strain on their brain.  

Another reason that might have increased the number of women experiencing myocardial infraction can be the fact that today females are pushing boundaries participating in business as much as males, and business and work stress has always been a significant cause of MI. Any sudden loss that forces the individual to feel emotional with extreme shock can also cause myocardial infraction.

Tips to Prevent Heart Diseases

Heart disease are preventable. Here are few tips that will help you in taking care of your heart:

•    Discuss your family’s medical history with your doctor, and determine your personal risk of getting heart disease.

•    Adopt a healthy lifestyle, packed with regular exercise and a healthy diet, and keep your body fit.

•    Quit smoking and reduce your consumption of alcohol, for cutting down the risk of getting coronary heart disease by 40 to 50 percent.

•    Make regular health check-up appointments and cure the diseases in its initial stage, making necessary changes in your life.


Can a person die from a heart attack?

Yes, if not given the right treatment immediately the person might die from this heart condition.

Can myocardial infraction be treated from medication?

The doctor might prescribe you the following medicines to treat MI:

•    Ace Inhibitors – help in reducing strain and blood pressure from the heart.

•    Anticlotting Medicines – prevent the platelets from clotting or clumping together

•    Anticoagulants – is a type of blood thinner, that allows the blood to flow smoothly in the arteries.

•    Beta Blockers – helps in decreasing the workload of the heart.

•    Statin Medicines – helps in lowering blood cholesterol.

What is the cost of Coronary Angioplasty in India?

The patient will be able to cover the cost of his/her treatment, travel, stay in India starts from USD 3,500 for single stand. Medical tourism service providers like us offer packages that can help the international patients find quality treatment at an affordable price without any waiting time. 

What are the heart attack symptoms in women?

These are common symptoms experienced by women during this condition:

•    Discomfort or pain in the neck, jaw or stomach

•    Lightheadedness

•    Nausea

•    Cold sweat

•    Uncomfortable fullness or pressure in the chest

What does a mini heart attack feel like?

A patient might feel intense pain in the left side of his/her chest, neck, jawline and back, making it difficult for the patient to breath or speak during the attack.

How can I confirm that I have a heart attack?

The patient cannot confirm whether they are having an attack until it is diagnosed by a professional. But in some cases, patient experience severe chest, that is followed by shortness of breath which is a universal warning sign for the attack.

Seek Medical Guidance in India

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India comprises of some of the best cardiologists in the world, who will help you increase your life expectancy by treating your heart diseases.

You can explore to learn more about the early symptoms of myocardial infraction and the treatment available to prevent them.