What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is the cancer of the uetrine cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus or womb that is connected to the upper vagina. This region where cervical cells are most likely to become cancerous is called the transformation zone. The development of cervical cancer can occur in cases when the abnormal cells in the cervix lining start to multiply in an unusual manner to give rise to pre-cancerous lesions.

In case cervical cancer is not treated on a timely basis, it holds the capacity to invade the uterus wall to spread in other areas through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

What can be the various types of cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer can be of two types namely, Squamous cell cancer and Adenocarcinomas.

Squamous Cell Cancers: This type of cancer originate from the squamous epithelium that comprises the visible part of the cervix.

Adenocarcinomas- This cancer type initiate from the glandular lining of the endocervical canal

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

Patients with cervical cancer can exhibit a large number of symptoms including, abnormal bleeding, odd heavy discharge, chronic pelvic pain, pain experienced during urination, heavy bleeding between menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, douching, or pelvic exam.

On experiencing symptoms as mentioned above, one should immediately consult a doctor or physician and undergo screening examinations.

How is cervical cancer diagnosed?

A Gynecologic oncologist can suggest patient with possibilities of cervical cancer to undergo  series of diagnostic procedures for confirmation that may include, Pap Smear Test, Liquid-Based Cytology, Hybrid Capture II Test, Colposcopy, Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan, Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

What are the types of cervical treatment in India?

The prime objective of high-precision cervical cancer treatment is either to offer a permanent cure or to minimize the risk of a possible relapse of the disease. India's premier cervical cancer treatment hospitals employ a multifaceted approach that can be individualized to the nature and stage of cervical cancer, patient's medical history and other factors including, the presence of diseases or disorders, to say the least.

Depending on aforementioned factors, operating surgeon or doctor can suggest the patient undergoes treatment procedures like surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Under surgery, six procedures are prevalent that may include,

Conization: Commonly termed as a cone biopsy, conization involves a procedure of removal of a cone-shaped piece of tissue from regions such as cervix and cervical canal.

Hysterectomy: Hysterectomy is a procedure, wherein, the patient's uterus is removed with the aid of surgery. This type of procedure is used on patients with a lower stage of cervical cancer.

Radical Hysterectomy: In this procedure, the uterus along with the adjoining tissues such as lymph nodes along with upper part of the vagina are removed.

Cryosurgery: In this procedure, an instrument is used that allows freezing and destruction of abnormal tissue growth including carcinoma in situ.

Laser Surgery: In this procedure, a laser beam is used as a knife by the surgeon to make bloodless cuts in the impaired tissue or eliminate a surface lesion like tumor.

Pelvic Exenteration: This procedure involves the surgical removal of the lower colon, rectum and bladder in the patient with cervical cancer. Also, the cervix, vagina, ovaries and surrounding lymph nodes are removed in women.

What is the cost of cervical cancer treatment in India?

For people in the quest for low-cost cervical cancer treatment, India is undoubtedly the best bet. This is because the cost of cervical cancer treatment in India is comparatively lower than that in its developed counterparts including the US and UK.

For better understanding, let us compare the cost of cervical surgical procedures in India with that of the US and UK. Go through the following cost-comparison table carefully,

Name of the procedure

US cost   

UK

India

Conization

    $5000

$4000

$1800

Hysterectomy

    $8000   

$6500   

$3000

Cryosurgery

    $10,000   

$8000

$4000

Laser Surgery

$9000

$7500

$3300

It is evident that the cost of treatment procedures for cervical cancer in India is around 35 to 50 % lower than that in the US and UK.

Having said that, the final price of the treatment rests on a wide range of factors, which are as follows

•    Patient's Current medical condition

•    Type of Hospital

•    Type of surgery being performed

•    Stage of the Cervical Cancer

•    Age of the Patient

•    The size of the tumor

•    The operating surgeon's expertise

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