Surgery is a branch of medicine that solves health problems by operating on the body, or the process of having an operation, or is a location where such an operation is performed.

Purpose of Surgery

Surgery, whether elective or required, is done for a multitude of reasons. A patient may have surgery to:

  • Further explore the condition for the purpose of diagnosis
  • Take a biopsy of a suspicious lump
  • Remove diseased tissues or organs
  • Remove an obstruction
  • Reposition structures to their normal position
  • Redirect channels
  • Transplant tissue or whole organs
  • Implant mechanical or electronic devices
  • Improve physical appearance

Depending on the diagnosis, a patient has several surgery options:

Optional or elective surgery
A procedure you choose to have, which may not necessarily be essential to continue a good quality of life. An example would be to have an unsightly mole or wart removed.

Required surgery
A procedure which needs to be done to ensure
quality of life in the future. An example would be having kidney stones removed if other forms of medication and treatments are not working. Required surgery, unlike emergency surgery, does not necessarily have to be done immediately.

Urgent or emergency surgery
This type of surgery is done in reaction to an urgent medical condition, such as acute appendicitis.

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Various types of Surgical Procedures

Laparoscopic Surgery

  • Laparoscopy is a surgical technique in which a thin fibre optic cable system is passed through small cuts in the skin to gain access to the target surgical site without making a big skin incision, as is required in a traditional open surgery.
  • This technique is performed using a video camera that delivers visuals of the surgical site to a television monitor that the surgeon uses as a guide. Due to this, all procedures performed using laparoscopy are referred to as “minimally invasive” or “keyhole surgery.”

Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery, or robot-assisted surgery, allows doctors to perform many types of complex procedures with more precision, flexibility and control than is possible with conventional techniques. Robotic surgery is usually associated with minimally invasive surgery — procedures performed through tiny incisions. It is also sometimes used in certain traditional open surgical procedures.

Pediatric Surgery

  • Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery, a branch of medicine that deals with children from their infancy to their teenage years.
  • Pediatric surgery is divided into various types of expertise. Prenatal surgery is a brand-new concept in the field. It deals with a fetus or unborn child. Some defects can already be determined through ultrasounds and other examinations that can be performed on pregnant women. These tests are also often part of routine maternal and fetal care. A pediatric surgeon who specializes in this field usually works closely with sonographers and radiologists.

Eye Surgery

Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.The eye is a very fragile organ, and requires extreme care before, during, and after a surgical procedure to minimise or prevent further damage. An expert eye surgeon is responsible for selecting the appropriate surgical procedure for the patient, and for taking the necessary safety precautions.

Cosmetic & Plastic Surgery

  • Cosmetic surgery continues to grow in popularity, with 15.1 million cosmetic procedures carried out in the United States in 2013, an increase of 3 percent on the previous year.
  • Procedures are available for almost any part of the body, but the choice to undergo cosmetic surgery should not be taken lightly. The results are often permanent, so it is important to be sure about the decision, to use an appropriate practitioner, and to have the right motivation.

Cardiac Surgery

Cardiac surgery, also called Heart Surgery, involves surgical operations performed on the heart under to correct life-threatening conditions. The surgery can be either open-heart surgery or minimally invasive surgery depending on the condition to be corrected.

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