The following skin disorders can be treated with Nd:YAG laser beams.
The laser light pulses target red pigment (haemoglobin). Typical settings employed for the treatment of facial veins include a 50 milliseconds pulse duration, and fluence (ie output energy) of 150¬250 J/cm2 (measured in Joules per centimetre squared).
- Nd:YAG laser can be used to remove brown age spots (solar lentigines), freckles, naevus of Ota, naevus of Ito, mongolian spots, Hori naevus and café-au-lait-macules.
Light pulses target melanin at variable depth on or in the skin.
- Nd:YAG laser may be used for hair removal in any location including underarms, bikini line, face, neck, back, chest and legs.
- Nd:YAG laser is generally ineffective for light-coloured (blonde/grey) hair, but effective for treating dark (brown/black) hair in patients of Fitzpatrick types I to III, and perhaps light-coloured type IV skin.
- Extreme caution is recommended in tanned or darker-skinned patients, as the laser can also destroy melanin, resulting in white patches of skin (leukoderma).
The longer-pulse (millisecond) 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser system has been shown to be more effective in safely removing hair than has the Q-switched (nanosecond) Nd:YAG system.
Light pulses target the hair follicle, which causes the hair to fall out and minimises further growth. Typical settings employed include pulse durations of 2 to 20 milliseconds and fluences of 10¬40 J/cm2.
- Blue, grey and black tattoos can be removed with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength).
- The colour of the tattoo and the depth of the pigment influence the duration and the outcome of the laser treatment.
- Laser treatment involves the selective destruction of ink molecules that are then absorbed by macrophages and eliminated.
Typical settings are pulse duration: 10 nanoseconds, output energy: 300¬500Mj.
- Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder caused by fungal pathogens.
- Several laser devices have been granted FDA marketing approval for the treatment of onychomycosis.
- The first two lasers that were sanctioned by the FDA for the treatment of onychomycosis (PinPointe™ FootLaser™ [Cynosure, Massachusetts, USA ] and Cutera GenesisPlus™ [Cutera, California, USA]) are both flashlamp pumped short-pulse Nd:YAG 1064 nm lasers.
- These lasers emit 100–3000 microsecond pulses with an energy fluence of 25.5 J/cm2 for a 1 mm spot size.
Other uses of neodynium YAG laser
Nd:YAG lasers have also be used to improve wrinkles in photo-aged skin.
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