Hemorrhoidectomy is surgery to remove hemorrhoids. You will be given general anesthesiaor spinal anesthesia so that you will not feel pain.

Incisions are made in the tissue around the hemorrhoid. The swollen vein inside the hemorrhoid is tied off to prevent bleeding, and the hemorrhoid is removed. The surgical area may be sewn closed or left open. Medicated gauze covers the wound.

Surgery can be done with a knife (scalpel), a tool that uses electricity (cautery pencil), or a laser.

The operation is usually done in a surgery center. You will most likely go home the same day (outpatient).

There is a procedure that uses a circular stapling device to remove hemorrhoidal tissue and close the wound. No incision is made. In this procedure, the hemorrhoid is lifted and then "stapled" back into place in the anal canal. This surgery is called stapled hemorrhoidopexy. People who have stapled surgery may have less pain after surgery than people who have the traditional hemorrhoid surgery. But the stapled surgery is more expensive. And people who have stapled surgery are more likely to have hemorrhoids come back and need surgery again.

Doppler-guided hemorrhoidectomy is a procedure that uses a scope with a special probe to locate the hemorrhoidal arteries so that less tissue is removed. Some studies show that it is less painful but more long term studies are needed to compare it with other procedures

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Procedures of Hemorrhoidectomy

A hemorrhoidectomy is typically done in a doctor's office, clinic, or surgical center.

You may receive local anesthesia (a small area of your body is numbed), a spinal block (the bottom half of your body is numbed), or general anesthesia (you won't be conscious).

There are different ways to perform the procedure, depending on your condition.

In a typical hemorrhoidectomy, a surgeon makes small incisions around the hemorrhoids.

A knife, scissors, or cautery pencil (a high-heat instrument) is then used to remove the hemorrhoids.

Sometimes, it's possible to staple a hemorrhoid or put a rubber band around it to block its blood flow. This causes the hemorrhoid to shrink.

Other techniques involve injecting a chemical solution or using a laser to shrink hemorrhoids.

Talk to your doctor about which procedure is the best option for you.

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What are the risks & complications of Hemorrhoidectomy?

Hemorrhoidectomies have a high success rate. Most patients have a satisfactory recovery following surgery, without any complications or recurrence. However, even after a successful surgery, there is a 5% chance of recurrence. Complications are usually rare with hemorrhoidectomy, but nevertheless, can occur. One of the most painful complications of internal or external hemorrhoids is thrombosis. Other complications may include the following:

  • Anal fistula or fissure
  • Severe constipation
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Excessive fluid discharge from the rectum
  • Fever of 38°C or higher
  • Inability to urinate or have bowel movements
  • Intense pain if bowel movements occur
  • Redness and swelling in the rectal area
  • Stenosis (narrowing) of the anus
  • Recurrence of the hemorrhoid

Source: https://www.everydayhealth.com/hemorrhoidectomy/guide/

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