A mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that removes diseased mastoid air cells. The mastoid is the part of your skull located behind your ear. It’s filled with air cells made of bone and looks like a honey comb. The diseased cells are often the result of an ear infection that has spread into your skull. The procedure can also be used to remove an abnormal growth of the ear known as a cholesteatoma.
There are variations of mastoidectomy procedures, including:
- simple mastoidectomy, in which your surgeon opens your mastoid bone, removes the infected air cells, and drains your middle ear
- radical mastoidectomy, in which your surgeon may remove your mastoid air cells, your eardrum, most of your middle ear structures, and your ear canal. This procedure is reserved for complicated mastoid disease.
- modified radical mastoidectomy, which is a less severe form of radical mastoidectomy that involves removing mastoid air cells along with some, but not all, middle ear structures
Why do I need a mastoidectomy?
A mastoidectomy can treat complications of chronic otitis media (COM). COM is an ongoing ear infection in your middle ear. A cholesteatoma, which is a skin cyst, can be a complication from these ongoing infections. The cyst grows gradually over time and may lead to serious complications such as:
- abscess in the brain
- dizziness or vertigo
- damage to your facial nerve that causes facial paralysis
- meningitis, or inflammation of the membranes of your brain
- labyrinthitis, or inflammation of your inner ear
- ongoing ear drainage
Your doctor may also perform a mastoidectomy to put in a cochlear implant. This small, complex electronic device can help provide you with a sense of sound if you’re profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing.
This surgery can also remove abnormal growths at the base of your skull.
How is a mastoidectomy performed?
Your doctor usually performs a mastoidectomy using general anesthesia. This ensures that you’re asleep and unable to feel pain. For a simple mastoidectomy, your surgeon will usually:
- Access your mastoid bone through a cut made behind your ear.
- Use a microscope and a small drill to open your mastoid bone.
- Use suction irrigation to keep the surgical area free of bone dust.
- Drill out the infected air cells.
- Stitch up the operative site.
- Cover the site with gauze to keep the wound clean and dry.
Your surgeon may also use a facial nerve monitor during surgery. This helps to limit injury to the facial nerve.