A variety of aesthetic procedures is available for different parts of the body.
Breast implants can be used to increase breast size or in reconstruction after surgery. Women may seek breast surgery to improve their body shape.
Mammoplasty procedures may include:
1. Breast augmentation, or enlargement, traditionally performed using saline or silicone gel prosthetics, and now occasionally with fat grafting.
It may be carried out if the woman feels her breasts are too small, if one breast is larger than the other, or if the breasts have changed after pregnancy or breastfeeding. Some older women opt for this treatment when the breasts being to droop due to the skin losing elasticity.
In some women, a breast enlargement can boost self-esteem and improve their feelings about their sexuality. In some, however, existing problems remain. counselling is why women are encouraged to undergo counseling first.
2. Breast reduction can help provide relief from physical discomfort, while the aim of augmentation more often relates to appearance. Breast reduction may also reduce the risk of breast cancer in women who are at high risk of the disease.
3. Mastopexy, or a breast lift, involves removing skin and glandular tissue to make the breasts smaller and rearranging the remaining tissue to make the breast appear lifted.
Depending on how much volume a patient has lost or desires, mastopexy can be combined with an implant. While it is similar to a breast reduction, which removes a much greater amount of tissue, mastopexy is not usually covered by major insurance carriers as it is not deemed medically necessary.
4. Male breast reduction treats gynecomastia, an enlargement of the mammary tissue in men. It may be done by liposuction or with various scar patterns, often hidden around the nipple and areola.
Liposuction, or suction-assisted lipectomy, uses thin cannulas, or hollow metal tubes, to vacuum fat from various parts of the body, usually the abdomen, thighs, buttocks, hips, backs of the arms, and neck. Liposuction may also be used for male breast reduction.
Tools used in liposuction include standard, ultrasound, mechanical, and laser devices. They all tend to involve suction of fat through a tube.
To prevent complications, there is a limit to the amount of fat that the surgeon can safely remove, depending on whether the patient will be discharged immediately after surgery or admitted to the hospital.
Liposuction should not be intended as a weight-loss procedure. When performed in the right patient, the goal is to improve contour and decrease limited areas of fat deposits.
Complications are rare but possible. They include the accumulation of blood under the skin, known as hematoma, infection, changes in sensation, allergic reactions, damage to underyling structures, and unsatisfactory results. The doctor must discuss these with the patient beforehand.
Liposuction does not reduce the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure.
Labiaplasty, labioplasty, labia minor reduction, or labial reduction involves surgery of the labia majora or labia minora of the vulva, a part of the female genitalia. It aims to reduce elongated labia, usually as part of a vaginoplasty.
There is a lack of clinical or scientific evidence to guide gynecological surgeons as to the safety and effectiveness of cosmetic vaginal procedures.
Abdominoplasty, or "tummy tuck" reshapes and firms the abdomen. Excess skin and fat are removed from the middle and lower abdomen, with the aim of tightening the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall.
This may be suitable after pregnancy or after losing a great deal of weight.
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